ZX Spectrum 48K motherboard (Issue 3B 1983, heat sink removed)
The Spectrum is based on a Zilog Z80A CPU running at 3.5 MHz (or NEC D780C-1 clone). The original model Spectrum has 16 KB (161024 bytes) of ROM and either 16 KB or 48 KB of RAM. Hardware design was by Richard Altwasser of Sinclair Research, and the machine’s outward appearance was designed by Sinclair’s industrial designer Rick Dickinson.
Video output is through an RF modulator and was designed for use with contemporary portable television sets, for a simple colour graphic display. Text can be displayed using 32 columns 24 rows of characters from the ZX Spectrum character set or from a set provided within an application, from a palette of 15 shades: seven colours at two levels of brightness each, plus black. The image resolution is 256192 with the same colour limitations. To conserve memory, colour is stored separate from the pixel bitmap in a low resolution, 3224 grid overlay, corresponding to the character cells. Altwasser received a patent for this design.
An “attribute” consists of a foreground and a background colour, a brightness level (normal or bright) and a flashing “flag” which, when set, causes the two colours to swap at regular intervals. Unfortunately, this scheme leads to what was dubbed colour clash or attribute clash with some bizarre effects in the animated graphics of arcade style games. This problem became a distinctive feature of the Spectrum and an in-joke among Spectrum users, as well as a point of derision by advocates of other systems. Other machines available around the same time, for example the Amstrad CPC, did not suffer from this limitation. The Commodore 64 used colour attributes in a similar way, but a special multicolour mode, hardware sprites and scrolling were used to avoid attribute clash.
Sound output is through a beeper on the machine itself. This is capable of producing one channel with 10 octaves. The machine also includes an expansion bus edge connector and audio in/out ports for the connection of a cassette recorder for loading and saving programs and data.
The machine’s Sinclair BASIC interpreter is stored in ROM (along with fundamental system-routines) and was written by Steve Vickers on contract from Nine Tiles Ltd. The Spectrum’s chiclet keyboard (on top of a membrane, similar to calculator keys) is marked with BASIC keywords, so that, for example, pressing “G” when in programming mode would insert the BASIC command GO TO.
Rick Dickinson came up with a number of designs called the ZX82 before the finalised ZX Spectrum. A number of the keyboard legends changed during the design phase including ARC becoming CIRCLE, FORE becoming INK and BACK becoming PAPER.
Sinclair Research models
ZX Spectrum 16K/48K
ZX Spectrum 16K/48K (Dimensions (mm): 233x144x30 (WxHxD) @ ~552 grams).
The original ZX Spectrum is remembered for its rubber keyboard, diminutive size and distinctive rainbow motif. It was originally released in 1982 with 16 KB of RAM for 125 Sterling or with 48 KB for 175; these prices were later reduced to 99 and 129 respectively. Owners of the 16 KB model could purchase an internal 32 KB RAM upgrade, which for early “Issue 1” machines consisted of a daughterboard. Later issue machines required the fitting of 8 dynamic RAM chips and a few TTL chips. Users could mail their 16K Spectrums to Sinclair to be upgraded to 48 KB versions. To reduce the price, the 32 KB extension used eight faulty 64 kilobit chips with only one half of their capacity working and/or available. External 32 KB RAM packs that mounted in the rear expansion slot were also available from third parties. Both machines had 16 KB of onboard ROM.
About 60,000 “Issue 1” ZX Spectrums were manufactured; they can be distinguished from later models by the colour of the keys (light grey for Issue 1, blue-grey for later models).
ZX Spectrum+ (Dimensions (mm): 319x149x38 (WxHxD))
Planning of the ZX Spectrum+ started in June 1984, and the machine was released in October the same year. This 48 KB Spectrum (development code-name TB) introduced a new QL-style case with an injection-moulded keyboard and a reset button. Electronically, it was identical to the previous 48 KB model. It retailed for 179.95. A DIY conversion-kit for older machines was also available. Early on, the machine outsold the rubber-key model 2:1; however, some retailers reported a failure rate of up to 30%, compared with a more usual 5-6%.
ZX Spectrum 128
ZX Spectrum 128
Sinclair developed the ZX Spectrum 128 (code-named Derby) in conjunction with their Spanish distributor Investrnica. Investrnica had helped adapt the ZX Spectrum+ to the Spanish market after the Spanish government introduced a special tax on all computers with 64 KB RAM or less which did not support the Spanish alphabet (such as ) and show messages in Spanish.
New features included 128 KB RAM, three-channel audio via the AY-3-8912 chip, MIDI compatibility, an RS-232 serial port, an RGB monitor port, 32 KB of ROM including an improved BASIC editor, and an external keypad.
The machine was simultaneously presented for the first time and launched in September 1985 at the SIMO ’85 trade show in Spain, with a price of 44,250 pesetas. Because of the large number of unsold Spectrum+ models, Sinclair decided not to start selling in the UK until January 1986 at a price of 179.95. No external keypad was available for the UK release, although the ROM routines to use it and the port itself, which was hastily renamed “AUX”, remained.
The Z80 processor used in the Spectrum has a 16-bit address bus, which means only 64 KB of memory can be directly addressed. To facilitate the extra 80 KB of RAM the designers used bank switching so that the new memory would be available as eight pages of 16 KB at the top of the address space. The same technique was also used to page between the new 16 KB editor ROM and the original 16 KB BASIC ROM at the bottom of the address space.
The new sound chip and MIDI out abilities were exposed to the BASIC programming language with the command PLAY and a new command SPECTRUM was added to switch the machine into 48K mode, keeping the current BASIC program intact (although there is no way to switch back to 128K mode). To enable BASIC programmers to access the additional memory, a RAM disk was created where files could be stored in the additional 80 KB of RAM. The new commands took the place of two existing user-defined-character spaces causing compatibility problems with some BASIC programs.
The Spanish version had the “128K” logo in white while the English one had the same logo in red.
ZX Spectrum +2
ZX Spectrum +2
The ZX Spectrum +2 was Amstrad’s first Spectrum, coming shortly after their purchase of the Spectrum range and “Sinclair” brand in 1986. The machine featured an all-new grey case featuring a spring-loaded keyboard, dual joystick ports, and a built-in cassette recorder dubbed the “Datacorder” (like the Amstrad CPC 464), but was in most respects identical to the ZX Spectrum 128. The main menu screen lacked the Spectrum 128’s “Tape Test” option, and the ROM was altered to account for a new 1986 Amstrad copyright message. These changes resulted in minor incompatibility problems with software that accessed ROM routines at certain addresses. Production costs had been reduced and the retail price dropped to 139149.
The new keyboard did not include the BASIC keyword markings that were found on earlier Spectrums, except for the keywords LOAD, CODE and RUN which were useful for loading software. This was not a major issue however, as the +2 boasted a menu system, almost identical to the ZX Spectrum 128, where one could switch between 48k BASIC programming with the keywords, and 128k BASIC programming in which all words (keywords and otherwise) must be typed out in full (although the keywords are still stored internally as one character each). Despite these changes, the layout remained identical to that of the 128.
ZX Spectrum +2A
ZX Spectrum +2A
The ZX Spectrum +2A was produced to homogenise Amstrad’s range in 1987. Although the case reads “ZX Spectrum +2”, the +2A/B is easily distinguishable from the original +2 as the case was restored to the standard Spectrum black.
The +2A was derived from Amstrad’s +3 4.1 ROM model, using a new motherboard which vastly reduced the chip count, integrating many of them into a new ASIC. The +2A replaced the +3’s disk drive and associated hardware with a tape drive, as in the original +2. Originally, Amstrad planned to introduce an additional disk interface, but this never appeared. If an external disk drive was added, the “+2A” on the system OS menu would change to a +3. As with the ZX Spectrum +3, some older 48K, and a few older 128K, games were incompatible with the machine.
ZX Spectrum +2B
The ZX Spectrum +2B signified a manufacturing move from Hong Kong to Taiwan later in 1987.
ZX Spectrum +3
ZX Spectrum +3
The ZX Spectrum +3 looked similar to the +2 but featured a built-in 3-inch floppy disk drive (like the Amstrad CPC 6128) instead of the tape drive, and was in a black case. It was launched in 1987, initially retailed for 249 and then later 199 and was the only Spectrum capable of running the CP/M operating system without additional hardware.
The +3 saw the addition of two more 16 KB ROMs. One was home to the second part of the reorganised 128 ROM and the other hosted the +3’s disk operating system. This was a modified version of Amstrad’s AMSDOS, called +3DOS. These two new 16 KB ROMs and the original two 16 KB ROMs were now physically implemented together as two 32 KB chips. To be able to run CP/M, which requires RAM at the bottom of the address space, the bank-switching was further improved, allowing the ROM to be paged out for another 16 KB of RAM.
Such core changes brought incompatibilities:
Removal of several lines on the expansion bus edge connector (video, power, and IORQGE); caused many external devices problems; some such as the VTX5000 modem could be used via the “FixIt” device
Dividing ROMCS into 2 lines, to disable both ROMs
Reading a non-existent I/O port no longer returned the last attribute; caused some games such as Arkanoid to be unplayable
Memory timing changes; some of the RAM banks were now contended causing high-speed colour-changing effects to fail
The keypad scanning routines from the ROM were removed
move 1 byte address in ROM
Some older 48K, and a few older 128K, games were incompatible with the machine.
The +3 was the final official model of the Spectrum to be manufactured, remaining in production until December 1990. Although still accounting for one third of all home computer sales in the UK at the time, production of the model was ceased by Amstrad at that point.
See also: list of ZX Spectrum clones
Sinclair licensed the Spectrum design to Timex Corporation in the United States. An enhanced version of the Spectrum with better sound, graphics and other modifications was marketed in the USA by Timex as the Timex Sinclair 2068. Timex’s derivatives were largely incompatible with Sinclair systems. However, some of the Timex innovations were later adopted by Sinclair Research. A case in point was the abortive Pandora portable Spectrum, whose ULA had the high resolution video mode pioneered in the TS2068. Pandora had a flat-screen monitor and Microdrives and was intended to be Sinclair’s business portable. When Alan Sugar bought the computer side of Sinclair it got ditched (a conversation with UK computer journalist Guy Kewney went thus: AS: “Have you seen it?” GK: “Yes” AS: “Well then.”).
In the UK, Spectrum peripheral vendor Miles Gordon Technology (MGT) released the SAM Coup as a potential successor with some Spectrum compatibility. However, by this point, the Commodore Amiga and Atari ST had taken hold of the market, leaving MGT in eventual receivership.
Many unofficial Spectrum clones were produced, especially in the former Eastern Bloc countries (e.g. in Romania, several models were produced (Tim-S, HC85, HC91, Cobra, Junior, CIP, CIP 3, Jet) , some featuring CP/M and a 5.25″/3.5″ floppy disk) and South America (e.g. Microdigital TK 90X and TK 95). In the Soviet Union, ZX Spectrum clones were assembled by thousands of small start-ups and distributed though poster ads and street stalls. Over 50 such clone models existed. Some of them are still being produced, such as the Pentagon and ATM Turbo. In India, Decibells Electronics introduced a licensed version of the Spectrum+ in 1986. Dubbed the “db Spectrum+”, it did reasonably well in the Indian market and sold quite a few thousand until 1990 when the market died away.
Several peripherals for the Spectrum were marketed by Sinclair: the ZX Printer was already on the market, as the ZX Spectrum expansion bus was backwards-compatible with that of the ZX81.
The ZX Interface 1 add-on module included 8 KB of ROM, an RS-232 serial port, a proprietary LAN interface (called ZX Net), and an interface for the connection of up to eight ZX Microdrives somewhat unreliable but speedy tape-loop cartridge storage devices released in July 1983. These were later used in a revised version on the Sinclair QL, whose storage format was electrically compatible but logically incompatible with the Spectrum’s. Sinclair also released the ZX Interface 2 which added two joystick ports and a ROM cartridge port.
There were also a plethora of third-party hardware addons. The better known of these included the Kempston joystick interface, the Morex Peripherals Centronics/RS-232 interface, the Currah Microspeech unit (speech synthesis), Videoface Digitiser, RAM pack, the Cheetah Marketing SpecDrum, a drum machine, and the Multiface, a snapshot and disassembly tool from Romantic Robot. Keyboards were especially popular in view of the original’s notorious “dead flesh” feel.
ZX Interface 1
ZX Interface 2
Kempston joystick interface
There were numerous disk drive interfaces, including the Abbeydale Designers/Watford Electronics SPDOS, Abbeydale Designers/Kempston KDOS and Opus Discovery. The SPDOS and KDOS interfaces were the first to come bundled with Office productivity software (Tasword Word Processor, Masterfile database and OmniCalc spreadsheet). This bundle, together with OCP’s Stock Control, Finance and Payroll systems, introduced many small businesses to a streamlined, computerised operation. The most popular floppy disk systems (except in East Europe) were the DISCiPLE and +D systems released by Miles Gordon Technology in 1987 and 1988 respectively. Both systems had the ability to store memory images onto disk snapshots could later be used to restore the Spectrum to its exact previous state. They were also both compatible with the Microdrive command syntax, which made porting existing software much simpler.
During the mid-1980s, Telemap Group Ltd launched a fee-based service allowing users to connect their ZX Spectrums via a Prism Micro Products VTX5000 modem to a viewdata service known as Micronet 800, hosted by Prestel. This service pre-dated the web, but offered many of the services now considered commonplace.
A screenshot from Rebelstar, a well-known Spectrum game
Main article: ZX Spectrum software
The Spectrum enjoys a vibrant, dedicated fan-base. Since it was cheap and simple to learn to use and program, the Spectrum was the starting point for many programmers. The hardware limitations of the Spectrum imposed a special level of creativity on game designers, and so many Spectrum games are very creative and playable even by today’s standards. The early Spectrum models’ great success as a games platform came in spite of its lack of built-in joystick ports, primitive sound generation, and colour support that was optimised for text display.
The Spectrum family enjoys a very large software library of more than 20,000 titles which is still increasing. While most of these are games, the library is very diverse, including programming language implementations, databases (eg VU-File), word processors (eg Tasword II), spreadsheets (eg VU-Calc), drawing and painting tools (eg OCP Art Studio), and even 3D-modelling (e.g. VU-3D) as well as astronomy and astrology programs and archaeology software.
Most Spectrum software was originally distributed on audio cassette tapes. The Spectrum was intended to work with a normal domestic cassette recorder, and despite differences in audio reproduction fidelity, the software loading process was quite reliable, if somewhat slow (by today’s standards).
Although the ZX Microdrive was initially greeted with good reviews, it never took off as a distribution method due to worries about the quality of the cartridges and piracy. Hence the main use became to complement tape releases, usually utilities and niche products like the Tasword word processing software and Trans Express, (a tape to microdrive copying utility). No games are known to be exclusively released on Microdrive.
Despite the popularity of the DISCiPLE and +D systems, most software released for them took the form of utility software. The ZX Spectrum +3 enjoyed much more success when it came to commercial software releases on floppy disk. More than 700 titles were released on 3-inch disk from 1987 to 1997.
Software was also distributed through print media; magazines and books. The reader would type the Sinclair BASIC program listing into the computer by hand, run it, and could save it to tape for later use. The software distributed in this way was in general simpler and slower than its assembly language counterparts. Magazines also printed long lists of checksummed hexadecimal digits with machine code games or tools.
Another software distribution method was to broadcast the audio stream from the cassette on another medium and have users record it onto an audio cassette themselves. In radio or television shows in many European countries, the host would describe a program, instruct the audience to connect a cassette tape recorder to the radio or TV and then broadcast the program over the airwaves in audio format. Some magazines distributed 7″ 33 rpm flexidisc records, a variant of regular vinyl records which could be played on a standard record player. These disks were known as floppy ROMs.
Copying and backup software
Many copierstilities to copy programs from audio tape to another tape, microdrive tapes, and later on diskettesere available for the Spectrum. As a response to this, publishers introduced copy protection measures to their software, including different loading schemes. Other methods for copy prevention were also used including asking for a particular word from the documentation included with the gameften a novella like in Silicon Dreams trilogyr another physical device distributed with the software.g. Lenslok as used in Elite. Special hardware, such as Romantic Robot’s Multiface, was able to dump a copy of the ZX Spectrum RAM to disk/tape at the press of a button, entirely circumventing the copy protection systems.
Most Spectrum software has, in recent years, been converted to current media and is available for download. One popular program for converting Spectrum files from tape is Taper; it allows connecting a cassette tape player to the line in port of a sound card, orhrough a simple home-built deviceo the parallel port of a PC. Once in files on a host machine, the software can be executed on one of many emulators, on virtually any platform available today.
The largest on-line archive of ZX Spectrum software is World of Spectrum, with more than 18,000 titles. The legality of this practice is still in question and a number of copyright holders have explicitly objected to the posting of their software, with which some Spectrum abandonware sites have usually complied.
A number of current leading games developers and development companies began their careers on the ZX Spectrum, including David Perry of Shiny Entertainment, and Tim and Chris Stamper (founders of Ultimate Play The Game, now known as Rare, maker of many famous titles for Nintendo and Microsoft game consoles). Other prominent games developers include Julian Gollop (Chaos, Rebelstar, X-COM series), Matthew Smith (Manic Miner, Jet Set Willy), Jon Ritman (Match Day, Head Over Heels), The Oliver Twins (the Dizzy series), Clive Townsend (Saboteur), Pete Cooke (Tau Ceti), Mike Singleton (The Lords of Midnight,War In Middle Earth), and Alan Cox. Although the Spectrum’s audio hardware was not as capable as that of the Commodore 64, computer musicians David Whittaker and Tim Follin produced notable multi-channel music for the machine.
Jeff Minter ported some of his Commodore VIC-20 games for the ZX Spectrum.
The ZX Spectrum enjoyed a very strong community early on. Several dedicated magazines were released including Sinclair User (1982), Your Sinclair (1983) and CRASH (1984). Early on they were very technically oriented with type-in programs and machine code tutorials. Later on they became almost completely game-oriented. Several general contemporary computer magazines covered the ZX Spectrum in more or less detail. They included Computer Gamer, Computer and Video Games, Computing Today, Popular Computing Weekly, Your Computer and The Games Machine.
The Spectrum is affectionately known as the Speccy by elements of its fan following.
More than 80 electronic magazines existed, mostly in Russian. Most notable of them were AlchNews (UK), ZX-Format (Russia), and Spectrofon (Russia).
SAM Coup A Similar system, often considered a clone of the ZX Spectrum.
ZX Spectrum graphic modes
List of ZX Spectrum games
List of ZX Spectrum clones
History of computing hardware (1960s-present)
^ a b c “How the Spectrum began a revolution”. BBC. 2007-04-23. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/6572711.stm. Retrieved 2007-06-05.
^ Dickinson, Rick. “specLOGO02”. Sinclair Spectrum development. http://www.flickr.com/photos/9574086@N02/697783938/in/set-72157600607571866/. Retrieved 2007-07-24.
^ Dickinson, Rick. “specModel01”. Sinclair Spectrum development. http://www.flickr.com/photos/9574086@N02/696932215/in/set-72157600607571866/. Retrieved 2007-07-24.
^ Klooster, Erik. “SINCLAIR ZX SPECTRUM : the good, old ‘speccy'”. Computer Museum. http://computermuseum.50megs.com/brands/zxspectrum.htm. Retrieved 2006-04-19.
^ a b Owen, Chris. “ZX Spectrum 16K/48K”. Planet Sinclair. http://www.nvg.ntnu.no/sinclair/computers/zxspectrum/spec1648.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-14.
^ Williams, Chris (2007-04-23). “Sinclair ZX Spectrum: 25 today”. Register Hardware. Situation Publishing. http://www.reghardware.co.uk/2007/04/23/spectrum_zx_25/. Retrieved 2008-09-14.
^ Owen, Chris. “ZX Spectrum”. Planet Sinclair. http://www.nvg.ntnu.no/sinclair/computers/zxspectrum/zxspectrum.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-14.
^ Vickers, Steven (1982). “Introduction”. Sinclair ZX Spectrum BASIC Programming. Sinclair Research Ltd. http://www.worldofspectrum.org/ZXBasicManual/zxmanchap1.html. Retrieved 2006-08-23.
^ a b Vickers, Steven (1982). “Colours”. Sinclair ZX Spectrum BASIC Programming. Sinclair Research Ltd. http://www.worldofspectrum.org/ZXBasicManual/zxmanchap16.html. Retrieved 2006-08-23.
^ EP patent 0107687, “Display for a computer“, granted 1988-07-06 , assigned to Sinclair Research Ltd
^ Vickers, Steven (1982). “Basic programming concepts”. Sinclair ZX Spectrum BASIC Programming. Sinclair Research Ltd. http://www.worldofspectrum.org/ZXBasicManual/zxmanchap2.html. Retrieved 2006-09-19.
^ a b “The Machines”. The Home Computers Hall of Fame. http://www.gondolin.org.uk/hchof/machinelist.html. Retrieved 2007-05-20.
^ “The High Street Spectrum”. ZX Computing: 43. February 1983. http://www.worldofspectrum.org/showmag.cgi?mag=ZXComputing/Issue8302/Pages/ZXComputing830200043.jpg. Retrieved 2008-08-05.
^ “News: Spectrum prices are slashed”. Sinclair User (15): 13. June 1983. http://www.sincuser.f9.co.uk/015/news.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-15.
^ Goodwin, Simon (September 1984). “Suddenly, it’s the 64K Spectrum!”. Your Spectrum (7): 3334. http://www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~jg27paw4/yr07/yr07_33.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-21.
^ Owen, Chris. “Spectrum 48K Versions”. Planet Sinclair. http://www.nvg.ntnu.no/sinclair/computers/zxspectrum/spec48versions.htm. Retrieved 2006-04-24.
^ a b c Denham, Sue (December 1984). “The Secret That Was Spectrum+”. Your Spectrum (10): 104. http://www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~jg27paw4/yr10/yr10_a4.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-21.
^ a b Owen, Chris. “ZX Spectrum+”. Planet Sinclair. http://www.nvg.ntnu.no/sinclair/computers/zxspectrum/specplus.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-21.
^ “News: New Spectrum launch”. Sinclair User (33): 11. December 1984. http://www.sincuser.f9.co.uk/033/news.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-19.
^ Bourne, Chris (November 1985). “News: Launch of the Spectrum 128 in Spain”. Sinclair User (44): 5. http://www.sincuser.f9.co.uk/044/news.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-15.
^ Crookes, David. “Why QWERTY?”. Micro Mart. http://www.micromart.co.uk/features/article/default.aspx?id=22913. Retrieved 2006-08-15.
^ “Clive discovers games at last”. Sinclair User (49): 53. April 1985. http://www.sincuser.f9.co.uk/049/128lnch.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-20.
^ Phillips, Max (November 1986). “ZX Spectrum +2”. Your Sinclair (11): 47. http://www.ysrnry.co.uk/articles/spectrumplustworeview.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-29.
^ Kendall, Philip (2000-01-06). “Sinclair ZX Spectrum FAQ: Question 14”. Planet Sinclair. http://www.nvg.ntnu.no/sinclair/faq/faqs.html#Q14. Retrieved 2008-01-05.
^ South, Phil (July 1987). “It’s here… the Spectrum +3”. Your Sinclair (17): 2223. http://www.worldofspectrum.org/showmag.cgi?mag=YourSinclair/Issue19/Pages/YourSinclair1900022.jpg. Retrieved 2008-08-05.
^ Amstrad (November 1987). “The new Sinclair has one big disk advantage”. Sinclair User (68): 23. http://www.worldofspectrum.org/showmag.cgi?mag=SinclairUser/Issue068/Pages/SinclairUser06800002.jpg. Retrieved 2008-08-05.
^ Rupert Goodwins (2002-05-12). “Sinclair Loki Superspectrum”. comp.sys.sinclair. (Web link). Retrieved on 2006-11-08.
^ Owen, Chris. “Clones and variants”. Planet Sinclair. http://www.nvg.org/sinclair/computers/clones/clones.htm. Retrieved 2006-10-26.
^ Owen, Chris. “ZX Printer”. Planet Sinclair. http://www.nvg.ntnu.no/sinclair/computers/peripherals/zxprinter.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-24.
^ “News: Some surprises in the Microdrive”. Sinclair User (18): 15. September 1983. http://www.sincuser.f9.co.uk/018/news.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-29.
^ Adams, Stephen (October 1983). “Hardware World: Spectrum receives its biggest improvement”. Sinclair User (19): 2729. http://www.sincuser.f9.co.uk/019/hardwre.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-29.
^ “Hardware World: Sinclair cartridges may be out of step”. Sinclair User (21): 35. December 1983. http://www.sincuser.f9.co.uk/021/hardwre.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-29.
^ “Hardware World: Clear speech from Currah module”. Sinclair User (21): 40. December 1983. http://www.sincuser.f9.co.uk/021/hardwre.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-29.
^ Frey, Franco (February 1987). “Tech Niche: Videoface to Face”. CRASH (37): 8687. http://www.worldofspectrum.org/showmag.cgi?mag=Crash/Issue37/Pages/Crash3700086.jpg. Retrieved 2008-08-05.
^ Bates, Jon (April 1986). “Tech Niche: SpecDrum”. CRASH (27): 100. http://www.crashonline.org.uk/27/specdrum.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-09.
^ Frey, Franco (March 1986). “Tech Niche: Multifaceted device”. CRASH (36): 86. http://www.worldofspectrum.org/showmag.cgi?mag=Crash/Issue26/Pages/Crash2600086.jpg. Retrieved 2008-08-05.
^ “Hardware World: Emperor Looks Good”. Sinclair User (31): 31. October 1984. http://www.sincuser.f9.co.uk/031/hardwre.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-30.
^ Frey, Franco (March 1987). “Tech Niche: Pure Gospel”. CRASH (38): 8283. http://www.worldofspectrum.org/showmag.cgi?mag=Crash/Issue38/Pages/Crash3800082.jpg. Retrieved 2008-08-05.
^ Heide, Martijn van der. “What’s new”. World of Spectrum. http://www.worldofspectrum.org/whatsnew.html. Retrieved 2006-08-19.
^ “raww.org :: zx spectrum demoscene news”. http://www.raww.org/. Retrieved 2006-08-19.
^ McCandless, David (1998-09-17), “Retrospectrum”, Daily Telegraph, http://www.nvg.ntnu.no/sinclair/sinclair/clive_dt170998.htm
^ Adamson, Ian; Richard Kennedy (1986-10-30). Sinclair and the “Sunrise” Technology: The Deconstruction of a Myth. Penguin Books Ltd. ISBN 0140087745. http://www.nvg.ntnu.no/sinclair/computers/zxspectrum/spec_sst.htm.
^ a b Heide, Martijn van der. “Archive!”. World of Spectrum. http://www.worldofspectrum.org/archive.html. Retrieved 2006-08-11.
^ a b Pearce, Nick (October/November 1982). “Zap! Pow! Boom!”. ZX Computing: 75. http://www.worldofspectrum.org/showmag.cgi?mag=ZXComputing/Issue8210/Pages/ZXComputing821000075.jpg. Retrieved 2008-08-05.
^ Wetherill, Steven (June 1984). “Tasword Two: The Word Processor”. CRASH! (5): 126. http://www.worldofspectrum.org/showmag.cgi?mag=Crash/Issue05/Pages/Crash0500126.jpg. Retrieved 2008-08-05.
^ Gilbert, John (October 1985). “Art Studio”. Sinclair User (43): 28. http://www.sincuser.f9.co.uk/043/sftwreb.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-18.
^ Carter, Alasdair (October/November 1983). “VU-3D”. ZX Computing: 7677. http://www.worldofspectrum.org/showmag.cgi?mag=ZXComputing/Issue8210/Pages/ZXComputing821000076.jpg. Retrieved 2008-08-05.
^ “Psion Vu-3D”. http://www.bioeddie.co.uk/Spectrum/vu-3d.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-18.
^ Heide, Martijn van der. “World of Spectrum”. http://www.worldofspectrum.org/infoseekadv.cgi?type=Astro. Retrieved 2008-09-16.
^ Brown, Paul N.. “Pitcalc simple interactive coordinate & trigonometric calculation software”. http://www.pitcalc.com/. Retrieved 2008-09-16.
^ Vickers, Steven; and Bradbeer, Robin (1982). “6. Using the cassette recorder”. Sinclair ZX Spectrum: Introduction. Sinclair Research Ltd. p. 21. http://www.worldofspectrum.org/ZXSpectrumIntroduction/chapter_six.html. Retrieved 2007-08-10.
^ Frey, Franco (May 1984). “Epicventuring and Multiplayer Networking”. CRASH (4): 4647. http://www.crashonline.org.uk/04/microdv.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-11.
^ Foot, Cathy (November 1985). “Microdrive revisited”. CRASH (22): 8. http://www.crashonline.org.uk/22/opinion.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-10.
^ Grimwood, Jim. “The Type Fantastic”. http://www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~jg27paw4/type-ins/typehome.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-16.
^ Heide, Martijn van der. “Books”. World of Spectrum. http://www.worldofspectrum.org/books.html. Retrieved 2008-09-17.
^ “News”. Sinclair User (16): 17. July 1983. http://www.sincuser.f9.co.uk/016/news.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-19.
^ Collins, Paul Equinox. “Spectrum references in popular music”. http://equ.in/ox/spectrum/music/. Retrieved 2008-09-16.
^ Heide, Martijn van der. “Sinclair Inforseek”. World of Spectrum. http://www.worldofspectrum.org/infoseekadv.cgi?type=Copy. Retrieved 20080918.
^ Barker, Andy. “ZX Spectrum Loading Schemes”. http://newton.sunderland.ac.uk/~specfreak/Schemes/schemes.html. Retrieved 20080918.
^ Heide, Martijn van der. “Taper”. World of Spectrum. http://www.worldofspectrum.org/taper.html. Retrieved 2008-09-12.
^ Heide, Martijn van der. “World of Spectrum Software Copyrights and Distribution Permissions”. World of Spectrum. http://www.worldofspectrum.org/permits/. Retrieved 2008-09-12.
^ Bezroukov, Nikolai. “Alan Cox: and the Art of Making Beta Code Work”. Portraits of Open Source Pioneers. http://www.softpanorama.org/People/Cox/index.shtml. Retrieved 2007-01-18.
^ Minter, Jeff. “Llamasoft History Part 8 – The Dawn of Llamasoft”. http://www.llamasoft.co.uk/lshistory8.php. Retrieved 2007-09-26.
^ “The Top Shelf magazines, comics and papers of the near past.”. TV Cream’s Top Shelf. http://tv.cream.org/specialassignments/topshelf/arjcomp.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-10.
^ “The YS Top 100 Speccy Games Of All Time (Ever!)”. Your Sinclair (70): 31. October 1991. http://www.ysrnry.co.uk/articles/ystop100.htm. Retrieved 2007-06-13.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Sinclair ZX Spectrum
World of Spectrum Fan site officially endorsed by Amstrad
Planet Sinclair Spectrum pages
ZX Spectrum at the Open Directory Project
The Incomplete Spectrum ROM Assembly and actual assembly listing
comp.sys.sinclair Newsgroup covering all Sinclair computers
Sinclair Spectrum development more preproduction designs of the Spectrum from Rick Dickinson
The Anatomy/Dissection of a Spectrum +2B Photographic study of a +2B vs the screwdriver
v d e
Sinclair computers, derivatives, and clones (ZX80/81, ZX Spectrum, and QL clones)
ZX80 ZX81 ZX Spectrum, Spectrum+, Spectrum 128 QL
ZX Spectrum +2 ZX Spectrum +3
TS 1000 TS 1500 TS 2048 TC 2048 TS 2068, TC 2068
Jupiter Ace SAM Coup Didaktik Dubna 48K Hobbit Pentagon Scorpion Sprinter One Per Desk CST Thor Q40/Q60 Komputer 2086
Sinclair Research Peripherals
ZX Printer ZX Interface 1 ZX Interface 2 Microdrive
TS1016 TS2020 TS2040 TS2050 TS2090 FDD FDD3000 TIRS232